Graduate Course

Graduate Course

According to the regulation of 2021 school year

Graduate Courses include Core courses and M-initial Courses offered by our department. Please visit Master Degree Requirements for more information about Core Courses. The following are the introduction of M-initial Courses. Please note that alternatives would be made depending on each semester.

Course (credits)

Course Introduction

  • Course
  • Dynamic Climatology
    This course teaches fundamental dynamics for low–frequency climate oscillations.
    | The content contains three themes:
    Ⅰ. Basic dynamics
    Ⅱ. Tropical Intraseasonal oscillations (TISO)
    Ⅲ. Annual cycle, interannual and decadal oscillations
    | The first theme consists of the following six subjects
    1. Shallow water model and equatorial waves
    2. Vertical mode separation in a stratified atmosphere
    3. Gill model
    4. Lindzen–Nigam model
    5. Two and half layer tropical atmospheric model
    6. Ocean model
  • Cloud and Moisture in Large-Scale Motion
    The Earth climate is uniquely regulated by water vapor and clouds that are governed by convective processes of highly fluctuating nature. Yet, climate oscillations of different spatiotemporal scales exhibit surprisingly coherent large-scale structure. This indicates interactions of water cycles among water vapor, clouds, circulation, and radiation of different scales are essential climate processes that must be treated properly for seamless weather to S2S (subseasonal to seasonal) prediction. This course is designed to be a graduate level (both MS and Ph.D.) course, with an emphasis on interactions of convective processes (in PBL, shallow and deep clouds) with selected weather and climate disturbances. One half of the course is taught by lectures covering fundamental convective processes, bibliographic survey, literature review [basic and general references]. The rest of the course time will be devoted to observational and modeling analysis for specific subjects within the scope of this course. Students’ interests will be considered in determining the subjects. For example, the course may focus on modulations of convection by cold surges, tropical cyclones, intraseaonal oscillations, or ENSO.
  • Advanced Numerical Prediction
    This course will introduce the advanced applications of numerical weather prediction (NWP), mainly using the WRF model. The spectral and pseudospectral methods typically used in the global model and tropical cyclone studies will be discussed. Relaxation method used in solving the Laplace and Possion equations will be presented. Several methods for lateral boundaries used in regional models will be discussed. Class projects based on the material covered in this class will be assigned. Students taking this course are assumed to have the basic knowledge of finite-difference methods and numerical analysis.
  • Special Topic on Deep Convection
    The physical and dynamical processes of deep cumulus clouds, which usually occur in mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), tropical cyclones and cloud clusters, and orographic precipitation will be introduced. Examples of important deep-convection phenomena near the Taiwan area, such as typhoons and MCSs within a Mei-Yu front, and their associated dynamics will be demonstrated and discussed.
    | Lecture Outline:
    1. Types of Convective Clouds in Earth’s Atmosphere
    2. Basics of Cloud Microphysics
    3. Basics of Cloud Dynamics
    4. Cumulonimbus and Severe Storms
    5. Mesoscale Convective Systems
    6. Dynamics and Precipitation in Tropical Cyclones
    7. Instabilities within Deep Convection
    8. Gravity Waves Generation and Propagation
  • Topics in Atmosphere-Ocean Fluid Dynamics
    Earth’s atmosphere and ocean exhibit complex patterns of fluid motion over a wide range of space and time scales. The slow-manifold dynamics, as well as the scale interactions, are of vital importance. This is a special short course focusing on the large-scale atmosphere-ocean fluid dynamics (AOFD), the geostrophic turbulence (i.e., 2D turbulence) dynamics and some related topics. The theory of geostrophic turbulence relies on two important components: a conservation principle that energy and potential vorticity are nearly conserved and an irreversibility principle that breaks the time-reversal symmetry of the exact inviscid dynamics. The AOFD can be understood quite simply in the form of isentropic fluid dynamics. The course may be useful for people who are interested in the understanding of the climate, weather, physics, chemistry, and/or biology of Earth’s fluid environment.
    | This course contains
    1. Conservation laws and basic equations –
    Rotation and stratification; potential temperature/density; the primitive equations; The vertical transform and shallow-water equations
    2. Circulation, vorticity, absolute vorticity and potential vorticity –
    Helmholtz theorem, Gauss’ theorem, Stoke’s theorem, and Kelvin circulation theorem; Bjerknes solenoidal term, Rossby and Ertel’s potential vorticity (PV) equation; Impermeability theorem of PV substance.
    3. Potential vorticity conservation and isentropic fluid dynamics –
    thermodynamic reversibility and entropy, diabaticity and mixing, the equations of motion in isentropic coordinates, Ertel’s PV and entropy conservation Quasi-geostrophy in isentropic coordinates
    4. Slow manifold quasi-balanced dynamics and 2D turbulence –
    Bachelor’s hypothesis, selective decay of enstrophy; geostrophic adjustment, secondary circulation equation; examples in vortex dynamics and filamentations.
    5. Hamiltonian formulation [*optional] Re-derivation of isentropic equations; particle-re-labelling symmetry and PV conservation (Chapter 7.2 of Salmon); non-canonical Hamiltonian dynamics and PV as a Casmir (Chapter 7.10 of Salmon)
  • Advanced Atmospheric Dynamics
    This course would include Atmospheric Oceanic Fluid Dynamics (AOFD) and new topics such as nonlinear dynamic modeling, multi-balance and stability, feedback, latency, synchronization, and scale analysis etc. This course puts an emphasis on math thinking and model computation.
    | The course contains
    1. Fundamentals and the ultimate problems
    2. Governing equations
    3. Quasi-equilibrium dynamics
    4. Vertical transform
    5. Geostrophic adjustment
    6. 2D turbulence
    7. Normal modes
    8. Tropical cyclone dynamics
    9. Large scale ocean circulation
    10. Boundary later dynamics
  • Climate Diagnostics
    Short-term climate predictions on weekly, monthly, seasonal and annual timescales involve many processes that operate among the atmosphere, ocean and land surface. Monitoring and analyzing the weekly to interannual climate variability is an efficient way to enhance our understanding of global and regional climate variability and the relationship with high-impact weather events.
    This course is designed to be a graduate level (both MS and Ph.D.) course, with emphasis on learning about how to talk about natural variability from weekly to interannual time scales, and the fundamental statistical/quantitative methods used to diagnose the natural variability. The diagnostics aims to assess the nature of climate variations on differing time scales.
    The class will be a mixture of lectures, discussions, and student presentations. Half of the course is taught by interactive-oriented lectures covering the major topics that is relevant to the real-time climate monitoring and discussion. The rest of the course time will be devoted to observational and forecast data analysis and student presentations. There will be homework and midterm progress report to cover the lectures and a final oral presentation and written report on topic chosen by students.
  • Climate Variability and Predictability
    Climate predictions on weekly, monthly, seasonal and annual timescales involve many processes that operate among the atmosphere, ocean and land surface. The ability to predict stems from the knowledge and understanding of global and regional climate variability and of the mechanisms that affect the state of the climate on weekly-to-decadal timescales. Such knowledge is a foundation for understanding climate change on centennial and longer time scales.
    This course is designed to be a graduate level (both MS and Ph.D.) course, with emphasis on understanding climate variability and predictability on from weekly to interannual time scales. The variability and predictability on decadal time scale will also be introduced. The relation between the major climate modes and regional weather and climate extremes such as droughts, floods, and cold and heat waves, and tropical cyclones will be discussed.
    The class will be a mixture of lectures, discussions, and student presentations. Two third of the course is taught by lectures covering the major topics, emphasizing and discussing the fundamentals, and literature reading. The rest of the course time will be devoted to observational and forecast data analysis discussion and student presentations. There will be homework and midterm exam to cover the lectures and a final research paper on topic chosen by students.
  • Special Topics on Tropical Climate Dynamics (1) - Madden Julian Oscillation
    This is an advanced Tropical Climate Dynamics course intended for graduate students. It will introduce key observational phenomena in tropics and discuss dynamic mechanisms behind the observed phenomena. We plan to cover four topics (MJO, Monsoon, ENSO, Climate mean state) in different semesters.
    | For this semester the special topic is MJO and the course outline is as following
    1. Observed characteristics
    2. Eastward propagation and planetary scale selection
    3. Northward propagation in boreal summer
    4. Initiation
    5. Role of air-sea interaction and inter-annual variation
  • Special Topics on Tropical Climate Dynamics (2) – BSISO
    This is an advanced Tropical Climate Dynamics course intended for graduate students. It will introduce key observational phenomena in tropics and discuss dynamic mechanisms behind the observed phenomena. We plan to cover four topics (MJO, Monsoon, ENSO, Climate mean state) in different semesters.For this semester, the special topic is boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO), which is a deviation of the MJO.
    | The course outline is as following
    1. Observed characteristics
    2. Propagation and planetary scale selection
    3. Initiation process
    4. Role of air–sea and air–land interaction and interannual variation
  • Global Atmospheric Circulation
    This course introduces the characteristics and the associated mechanisms of the large-scale circulation in the atmosphere. With the goal of bridging theories and observation using conceptual and numerical models with different level of complexity, we focus on the zonal mean circulation and briefly extend to the 3D circulation. Topics include: Hadley Circulation (its strength and extent), midlatitude zonal mean circulation (the drivers of westerlies), and 3D atmospheric circulation (monsoon, storm tracks). The model-projected trend (during global warming) of these circulations will be covered by paper discussions, which are designed to review and discuss the fundamental theories and simplified models.
  • Cloud Dynamics
    Chien-Ming Wu
    This course focuses on the general dynamics of cloud systems. Models of fog, stratocumulus, shallow cumulus, deep cumulus, and orographic convection will be presented. Classes will include presentations by the instructor and students. Material covered in class will be supplemented by homework assignments, which require coding abilities. The class will conclude with student presentations on a chosen project.
    Class discussions will be held at the end of each topic or main subsection to discuss science questions arising from the material just presented. Each student is expected to have thought about such questions independently and be able to present these in class if called on.
    | The course contains
    1. Introduction on cloud dynamics –
    Government equations in simulating convective clouds in the atmosphere, Turbulence closure and Large Eddy Simulation on clouds
    2. Fogs and Stratocumulus Clouds –
    Formation and dissipation mechanisms, Mixed layer model
    3. Shallow cumulus –
    Boundary layer cumulus, Theories of entrainment, Detrainment in cumulus clouds, Mass flux cloud model
    4. Deep cumulus –
    Cloud/environment profiles, Parcel model and cumulus parameterization
    5. Orographic Systems –
    Theory of flow over hills and mountains, Orographic precipitation over complex topography
  • Earth System Model – Physical processes
    Chien-Ming Wu
    The course introduces physical processes in Earth System Model (ESM), focusing on moist convection in nature, namely convective parameterization. We will analyze the results from large-eddy simulation (LES), cloud-resolving model (CRM) to build up conceptual models for the parameterization. This course will include lecture and hands on analyses including sub-grid scale parameterization, spatial-temporal scale of moist convection, quasi-equilibrium, cloud model, unified parameterization, future of earth system modeling.
  • Land-Atmosphere Interactions
    Feedbacks between land and atmosphere play a central role in the interactive functioning of the Earth's climate. The goal of this course is to understand the essential aspects of roles of land processes in the climate systems.
    | Topics covered include
    1. basics of terrestrial surface energy, water and carbon balances
    2. ecohydrology
    3. land use and land cover changes.
    Students will read several critical papers in these topics, and will also learn to design, perform, and analyze numerical climate experiments/outputs with a land surface model and climate model for their final project.
  • Mesoscale Meteorology
    As revealed by advances in observing technology such as Doppler radar remote sensing and in numerical modeling, it has been recognized that most of hazardous weather occurring in the real atmosphere are typically organized on an intermediate (viz. meso) scale. Particularly, because of the inherent complex of mesoscale phenomena, theoretical principal of the synoptic meteorology usually cannot be applied to explain dynamical processes associated with these severe weather events. The main objective of this course is to introduce various mesoscale phenomena occurring in the atmosphere, with special emphasis on their internal structure and associated dynamics. In this course, current understanding of mesoscale processes will be the major theme, but it will be also complemented by including some new findings from the latest results of mesoscale research.
    | The course outline will primarily include
    1. Fundamental Concepts of Mesoscale
    2. Fundamental Principle of Radar Observations
    3. Concept of Atmospheric Convection and Perturbation Pressure Diagnosis
    4. Midlatitude and Tropical Mesoscale Convective Systems
    5. Severe Storms
    6. Orographic Precipitation
  • Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
    This is an upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level course on geophysical waves and instability. We will focus on slowly evolving flow that is nearly in geostrophic balance and thus satisfies the "Quasi-geostrophic (QG) approximation".
    | The primary subjects are
    1. Quasi-geostrophy
    2. Rossby wave
    3. Baroclinic instability
    4. Introductory wave-mean-flow interaction + Geostrophic turbulence
    The course format is a combination of lectures and student project, with student-led presentation/discussion.
  • Special Topics on Clouds and Environment
  • Global Climate Change
    This course provides a solid foundation in climate change science, including the physical basis of the climate systems, the development and application of climate models, the interpretation of future climate projection, and the potential impacts of climate change on the environment and human society.
    The students will carry out hands-on projects to review the IPCC reports (and related literature), to analyze climate data, and to discuss the cutting-edge topics in global and regional climate change.
  • Data Assimilation for Numerical Modeling
    Data assimilation is an important field in numerical modeling and analysis in geoscience. It allows observation information to be objectively and optimally ingested into numerical models using statistical theories, providing analysis data which are essential for initializing model prediction and for climate studies.
    This course introduces the concept of data assimilation and study several common data assimilation schemes in geoscience, from simple interpolation to advanced methods such as variational data assimilation and ensemble Kalman filter. Recent advancement in this field and the implementation and application in operational numerical weather prediction are also introduced.